Direct communication: what is it and what are its characteristics?
These are the main characteristics of direct communication.
Do you know what direct communication is? As we will see, this type of communication is the one that occurs immediately, but its definition goes much further.
In this article we will focus on describing this type of human communication (which is oral or in signs), and we will also analyze the 10 main characteristics it presents (i.e., the resources it uses, along with examples of them).
Finally, we will also we will see in what consists the indirect communication, and what differentiates it from the direct one..
Direct communication: what is it?
Broadly speaking, direct communication is communication that takes place "in the here and now". But what does it mean? When we talk about direct communication, we are talking about a type of human communication that takes place through a natural language, which is oral or signed (sign language). The natural language is any linguistic variety that is part of the human language, and that has the mission to communicate.
Direct communication is also characterized by the fact that the message or information is transmitted immediately from sender to receiver.. Thus, the sending and receiving of the message is practically simultaneous.
In an ideal situation, in this type of communication, both sender and receiver say what they think and feel, and there is active listening between them, as well as effective feedback.
On the other hand, this type of communication means that the messages that are transmitted have a special structure, and are expressed in a certain way (different from how a written message would be expressed, or a message through non-verbal communication, for example).
10 characteristics of direct communication
As for the main characteristics of direct communication (especially that which uses an oral language), we find the following:
1. Use of reiterations
Reiterations involve repeating a word, or a set of words, throughout the discourse (especially at the beginning of a sentence). (especially at the beginning of a sentence). They often appear in direct communication without realizing it, or because we want to emphasize what we are saying. An example of reiteration would be: "Drink, drink, don't be silly".
2. Use of redundancy
Redundancies also appear frequently in direct communication. It is the use of unnecessary words to express an idea, when it can be expressed with fewer words (or even understood without using words).When in fact it can be expressed with fewer words (or can even be understood without using words). In other words, it is the repetition of unnecessary information or information that does not add anything new to the speech or message.
3. Use of idioms
Catch phrases are also very common in direct communication. They are used by the vast majority of people at all socio-cultural levels (since they deal with a Wide range of topics), consist of expressions with a fixed form and a figurative meaning..
That is, they convey messages in a non-literal (figurative) way. Some examples are: "let your guard down", "let the cat out of the bag", "put your foot in your mouth" or "the straw that breaks the camel's back".
4. Use of crutches
Crutches, those famous words that teachers hated so much that we used to pronounce in oral presentations, are precisely that, words or expressions that we repeat, often unconsciously, throughout our speech and too often. and with excessive frequency.
In a way, it is an "oral tic" that appears when we speak or explain something in the context of direct communication, and whose frequency of appearance is accentuated when we are nervous.
5. Use of unfinished sentences
Unfinished sentences are sentences that we frequently use in spoken language, which are unfinished. It is about starting sentences without finishing them, because of the speed of the speech, because another idea appears, because another idea appears, because another idea appears, because another idea appears, because another idea appears.because another idea appears, because we digress, etc.
6. Occurrence of omissions
Another characteristic of direct communication is the occurrence (or use) of omissions. Omissions involve leaving out (canceling or cutting) certain parts or relevant aspects of the communication.
They occur because of the source or the addressee of the message, and they make the communication incomplete, or cause certain meanings to lose their essence..
7. Use of onomatopoeias
Onomatopoeias, other common elements in direct communication, are either words that we use to represent a sound or imitations of a certain sound. Examples of onomatopoeias are: "tic tac" (clock), "woof woof" (dog)", "ring ring" (alarm), etc.
8. Jumps from one topic to another
In direct communication, it is also In direct communication, it is also quite common for us to jump from one topic to another during our speech (often without realizing it). (often without realizing it).
An example of this would be: "The other day I went to the cinema to see that movie... oh yes, I met Pablo. It's hot now, isn't it? Jumps from one topic to another, if they occur in a very accelerated manner, can confuse or confuse the receiver of our message.
9. Disordered elements in the sentence
On the other hand, it is also common for disordered elements to appear in sentences in direct communication.
This happens because the speech is rushed, the speed of it being high, or because new ideas suddenly appear in the sentence.This happens because new ideas suddenly appear in the sender's mind, which causes him to introduce them in the speech in a hurried manner, or for other reasons.
10. Support in non-verbal language
Finally, another characteristic of direct communication is the complementary use of nonverbal language. This implies the use of gestures by the interlocutors, the use of certain body positionsThis implies the use of gestures by the interlocutors, of certain body positions, the use of different tones of voice, etc.
What about indirect communication?
We have seen what direct communication consists of, but what about indirect communication? Both types of communication are part of human communication.. In the case of indirect communication, this occurs when the interlocutors are not physically together (and often not even close).
To carry out this type of communication, communication channels are used such as: social networks (e.g. facebook, twitter, instagram...), chats or email.
In other words, in these cases there is an intermediary between sender and receiverand communication is not completely immediate (it takes seconds or minutes, depending on the channel). Another characteristic of it is that there is no physical and temporal space shared by the speakers, which makes their visual and body contact does not occur.
- Maletzke, G. (1992). Psychology of social communication. (5th Ed.). Editorial Quipus. Ecuador.
- Michael, T. (2013). The origins of human communication. Katz Editores. Spain.
- Real Academia Española: Diccionario de la lengua española, 23rd ed., [version 23.3 online]. https://dle.rae.es [March 26, 2020].
(Updated at Mar 28 / 2023)