34 examples of Analogies, classified and explained.
A classification with examples of analogies sorted according to the type to which they belong.
Everyday language is full of comparisons to try to make easier some ideas that, said without going into further details or without being exemplified, can be complicated.
Analogies are a type of linguistic resource widely used by all speakers, whether or not they have an extensive literary background, and they make it possible to communicate messages easily, efficiently and quickly.
Let us look at some examples of analogiesLet's look at some examples of analogies, relating them to the meaning of the concept and some special types of this type of resource.
What are analogies?
Analogies refer to existing relations or similarities between two concepts or sets of words.. This relationship of similarity emerges from comparing two or more concepts, consolidating the most salient features of both. In short, they are understood as what two different things have in common.
The things that are compared do not necessarily have to be objects; they can also be ideas, roles, jobs, actions... Usually, this type of linguistic resource is used to better explain a certain idea on the basis of another one that is better known and more widely understood by the general population.
Writers very often resort to analogiesThis is especially true when trying to make the reader understand an idea that is not so clear by making use of objects and contexts with which the reader can feel more identified. It also has the function of capturing the attention and not making the text heavy and not very dynamic.
Examples of analogies
Below we will see a few analogies, classified according to the specific type to which they belong. The first four types, comparison, homology, metaphor and allegory, are language analogies, in which the message has a single interpretation, but with the addition of a figurative meaning.
Subsequently, we will look at the analogies of argumentation, interpolation, extrapolation and reductio ad absurdum, used in science to go from one thing to another.used in science to go from things that are better known to things that are not so well known, making it possible to create logical-formal models.
Comparison is a type of analogy in which similes are produced in which similes are produced in which objects or ideas that have characteristics in common are compared..
- This muscle is as hard as a rock.
- Its tears sparkle like two blue sapphires.
- The streets of the city were like a labyrinth.
- Your soul is blacker than night.
- This summer has been so hot it's been like living in hell.
- You swim as well as if you were a mermaid.
- Her beautiful blonde hair looked like gold.
- Your green eyes were like emeralds.
- Your full red lips were sweet as strawberries.
- I ate as if it was my last supper.
This is comparing different things that perform a function that, in essence, is also different, but that have a structural part that is similar and are part of comparable categories, of the same classification system. It is widely used in the field of comparative anatomy.
- An angel is to good what a demon is to evil.
- Madrid is to Spain what Paris is to France.
- Crying is to sadness what laughing is to joy.
- Hunger is to food as thirst is to drink.
- Monday is to the week what January is to the year.
- Studying is to childhood what working is to adulthood.
- The dove is to peace what the raven is to war.
- Pizza is to Italy what paella is to Spain.
- A captain is to a ship what a mayor is to a city.
- An arm is to a human being what a wing is to a bat.
Metaphors involve comparing one object to another; however, the object that is being compared is omitted.However, the object being compared is omitted, and it is up to the listener or reader to conclude which object is being referred to.
While they are not analogies stricto sensu, they are related, especially to analogies by comparison. Some examples:
- Your eyes are black night.
- Your eyes were the source of vast rivers in your cheeks.
- The golden plate emerges from the cold sea.
- He understands everything the first time, he is a lynx.
- His mouth spits acid.
- My Heart is a stopped geranium.
- His hands are olive branches.
- It's not hell, it's the street.
- This project is in diapers.
- It's in the clouds.
In this type of linguistic resource, comparisons are placed throughout the text or narrative.. Allegories are very frequent in texts with a didactic or moral purpose such as the Bible, fables or stories.
This type of analogy is very subtle, something similar to what happens to metaphors, and a more or less complex interpretation must be made. more or less complex interpretation must be made in order to grasp the message behind what has been behind what has been said or written.
An example of allegory would be the story of Peter and the wolf. The boy, who had been crying all summer that the wolf was coming when it was not, had caused everyone to become alarmed and come to where Peter was, seeing that they had been tricked.
One day, however, the wolf really came, Peter cried out but no one paid any attention to him. From this we can see that telling lies is wrong, and that it can have very serious consequences, such as those that Peter had to go through.
Interpolation is the action of consider all the situations of a phenomenon and interpret it in relation to a new situation, either by analogy or induction.either by analogy or induction. Interpolation is widely used in pedagogy, especially to facilitate the learning process, going from a basic level to a more complex one.
An example would be learning to read and write, starting first by understanding the sounds of the letters, then how they are used to form words, learning any special rules and then understanding the meaning of the sentences.
The more or less invisible analogy behind the idea of teaching writing in this way is that the difficulty will progressively increase.
Extrapolation is understood as the fact of extending the same idea, method or action to other situations that, in appearance, present the same situations that, in appearance, have the same characteristics as the original situation..
In relation to the example given in the case of interpolation, the reading process, which went from less to more complex, can be extrapolated to other educational contexts, such as learning human anatomy, going from cells to organ systems.
7. Reduction to absurdity
Instead of establishing relationships, as is the case with most of the types of analogies already discussed, here what is done is to establish contradictions to demonstrate that something or someone behaves in a different way. demonstrate that something or someone behaves in a way contrary to what has been reacted to..
For a better understanding of this case, let us give an example:
Pedro did not steal Pablo's pencil case yesterday, because Pedro was in Madrid and Pablo was in Barcelona.
From this it is understood that since Pedro cannot be in two places at the same time, it is materially impossible that he could have committed the theft.
- Esper, E. A. (1973).Analogy and association in linguistics and psychology. Georgia Press.
- Itkonen, E. (2005). Analogy as structure and process: Approaches in linguistics, cognitive psychology and philosophy of science. John Benjamins Publishing.
- Oppenheimer, R. (1956). Analogy in science. American Psychologist, 11(3) 127.
(Updated at Mar 28 / 2023)