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Diabetes is an endocrine illness caused by the absolute or relative lack of an insulin hormone, in which hyperglycemia, i.e. elevated level of sugar in the blood develops. The disease is chronic and defined by a violation of not only carbohydrate but also fat, protein, mineral and water-electrolyte balances. In this article, we are discussing the types of diabetes, diagnosis methods, treatment methods, and provide the list with short descriptions of antidiabetic medications available at our online pharmacy.
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Diabetes: causes and factors of development
It is now proven that diabetes develops as a result of genetic predisposition. Detection of a number of genetic variations, which are much more common in diabetics, made it possible to establish the hereditary nature of the condition.
The studies show that type I diabetes is inherited with a 3-7% probability from the father and with an 8-10% probability on the part of the mother. If both parents have type I diabetes, the risk of the condition transmission to their children rises to 70%. As for type II diabetes, it is inherited with almost 80% probability from both mother and father. If both parents are ill with type II diabetes, the likelihood of developing it in children is close to 100%, although the disease is frequently fully developed and diagnosed in adulthood.
As for predisposing factors of diabetes, among them there are:
- Obesity. With obesity, the body develops tolerance to glucose, which worsens its penetration into muscle cells. Thus, glucose accumulates in the blood, which contributes to the onset of type II diabetes. Obesity refers to those factors that a person can change. Proper nutrition and exercise can change the situation for the better.
- Diseases in which damage to beta cells of the pancreas is done. Such diseases include pancreatitis, pancreatic gland cancer, and diseases of other endocrine glands. One of the provoking factors, in this case, can be an injury.
-Viral infections. Some viral infections (for example, rubella, influenza, chickenpox, hepatitis, and others) can become a serious provoking factor, especially for people who are prone to diabetes and suffer from obesity.
- Nervous stress is a serious factor for people with a hereditary predisposition.
- Age. Naturally, the older the individual, the higher is the likelihood of becoming ill with type II diabetes. Type I diabetes, on the other hand, usually starting to manifest at a teenage and young age.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Prolonged use of certain medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics and steroid hormones).
If you have one or more risk factors, make sure to check your blood sugar regularly and if it turns out that you have diabetes, get a prescription and recommendations on the diet and exercising from your doctor and buy antidiabetic drug that your doctor appointed from our online pharmacy timely to avoid complications of the disease.
Types of the condition
There are mainly two types of the condition type I and type II.
- The pathogenesis of type I diabetes is the insufficiency of insulin creation by the beta-cells of the pancreas.
- Diabetes mellitus type II develops due to a diminished sensitivity of body cells to insulin.
- Gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, and Maturity onset diabetes of the young represent a separate group of autosomal dominant diseases. They are defined by a worsening of the secretory activity of beta cells of the pancreatic gland.
Signs of diabetes: how is the condition manifested?
Before you try to find signs of diabetes in yourself, you should know that they are different depending on its type. Let’s consider the main signs of type I diabetes, the second type and diabetes onset in children.
- Symptoms that accompany type I diabetes usually develop quite rapidly. The typical manifestations of the condition can untwist on a course of a couple days. In many cases, the person unexpectedly falls into a diabetic coma. If it’s the case, the individual must be immediately sent to the hospital. The first signs that occur include increased thirst, the odor of acetone in the exhaled air, frequent urges to urinate, poor healing of the wounds, skin itching and others.
- Symptoms that can be signals of type II diabetes development can be unnoticed for a long time. This symptomless period is called prediabetes state when a person still has chances to avoid the further development of pathology. One of the first signs of type II diabetes is increased fatigue, but few people pay attention to it, all writing off for fatigue, weather and other life circumstances. Over time, the eyesight deteriorates, memory problems occur. Due to the high content of sugar in the blood, a person develops a tendency to catch and develop infectious diseases (especially fungal ones). Women often develop a thrush against diabetes mellitus and start feeling increased hunger. Increased thirst (they consume up to three-five liters of water per day) can also be one of the signs. In severe cases, ulcers appear due to trophic disorder in the tissues.
- Symptoms of diabetes development in kids. Symptoms of diabetes in kids are similar to the classic manifestations of this disease in adults; however, the earlier the child develops diabetes, the more the symptoms will differ from those seen in adults.
If you notice these symptoms in yourself or someone of your family, make sure to discuss it with your doctor and do necessary tests to get a proper treatment plan if necessary.
Why do these symptoms develop?
If you develop some of the symptoms, you may want to know what the reasons behind them are. In this section, we will discuss it in a simplified way so that people without the medical background would be able to understand it.
-Enhanced thirst and frequent urges to urinate. The thing is that when blood sugar rises, glucose begins to penetrate into the urine. However, it passes there not in its pure form, but in water bind with several water molecules. Thus, the body strongly loses fluid, and the person starts suffering from frequent urges to urinate.
-The scent of acetone in the breathing. In the condition, the blood sugar level is high, but cells are not able to absorb sugar (due to low levels of insulin or due to the development of tolerance to it). Under such circumstances, when the body is not able to fully feed on glucose, then it turns to food fat reserves. During the cleavage of fats, ketone bodies are formed (among them acetone is formed). In a significant increase in the level of ketone in the blood, they begin to be noticeable in the breathed out air. Besides, the elevated level of ketone leads to ketoacidosis, i.e. the rise of the acidity of the blood. The blood pH should be within the range of 7.35 - 7.45 and even minor deviations from these indicators lead to serious consequences up to a diabetic coma.
- Increased appetite. Since in diabetes there is either the low level of insulin insufficient for glucose metabolism or the tolerance of cells to glucose is developed, it makes the body constantly feel hunger. Signals of hunger are sent to the brain, and a person naturally has an increase in appetite due to this. And, despite the fact that the patient eats a lot, carbohydrates from food are very poorly digested. While the problem with the lack of insulin is not solved, the patient will feel hunger.
- Infections in diabetes. The thing is that the content of sugar in diabetes rises not only in the blood but in all body fluids, including in the sweat. A moist environment and an abundance of glucose are perfect conditions for the onset of bacterial and fungal infections. With the normalization of blood sugar through the diet, exercising, and using of antidiabetic drugs, the tendency to catch and develop infectious skin diseases and skin itching will disappear.
-Poor wound healing. In the condition, the wounds heal badly due to the toxic effect of elevated sugar levels on the blood vessels’ walls. Since in the condition all tissues are exposed to constant toxic effects, the healing processes in them occur very slowly.
What should you do if you notice one or several symptoms?
If you find at least one of the above-mentioned symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and go through all the relevant tests. If you are diagnosed with the condition, it is necessary to follow all the doctor's recommendations regarding the intake of medicines and dietary restrictions. However, you don’t necessarily need to purchase expensive brand medications as you can buy antidiabetic drugs in a generics form from our online pharmacy and get the same results. But make sure to check the dosage per pill of the active ingredient of the tablets to be sure that you are correctly following your healthcare provider recommendations.
How is the diagnosis of diabetes made?
Diabetes is diagnosed by the following laboratory tests:
- Determination of fasting glucose;
- Conducting a glucose tolerance test;
- Determination of glycosylated hemoglobin;
- Urine analysis for sugar content;
- Urine analysis for the content of acetone (acetone may be present in urine and in other disorders).
Treatment of diabetes
The main goal of the treatment of diabetes is a diminishing of the content of glucose in the blood. With type I diabetes, insulin injections are necessary. In diabetes type II, usually prescribed hypoglycemic drugs and diet, which is calculated taking into account the patient's body weight, sex, and physical exertion.
Complications of diabetes
- Acute complications of the condition are diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar coma, and lactocidotic coma.
- The late complications of the ilness include retinopathy, diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy, polyneuropathy, nephropathy, arthropathy, diabetic foot, and mental disturbance.
Prophylaxis of diabetes
Prevention of diabetes mellitus is to avoid the negative factors that contribute to the development of the disease with the existing genetic predisposition. This is especially true of obesity. Timely weight correction significantly reduces the likelihood of developing diabetes.
Antidiabetic drugs you can buy from Rxshop pharmacy
- Generic Actos is based on Pioglitazone. We offer you to buy the drug made by pharmaceutical company IPCA - A dose of life. The tablets are prescribed to be used as a monotherapy of diabetes type II and additional therapy of diabetes type II when other first-line medications do not work. The medication selectively stimulates certain receptors and through their effect, it improves the metabolism of lipids in the peripheral tissues and the liver. It doesn’t stimulate the creation of insulin but still must be used only if the insulin-creation feature of the pancreatic gland is working.
- Generic Amaryl (Glimepiride) manufactured by Aventis Pharma is also appointed for the management of diabetes type II. It is from the class of sulfonylureas, i.e. it stimulates the creation of insulin by the pancreatic gland. Besides, it has additional extrapancreatic activity, i.e. it betters the sensibility of tissues to insulin and lowers the use of it by the liver.
- Generic Avandia (Rosiglitazone) is used for monotherapy and combined therapy of diabetes type II. The preparation diminishes the level of blood sugar by enhancing the sensibility of insulin receptors in peripheral tissues, i.e. fat tissue, skeletal muscles, and the liver.
- Generic DDAVP (Desmopressin) is used in diabetes insipidus, bedwetting, during the tests for diabetes and renal functioning, treatment of hemophilia A, Von Willebrand disease, and elevated blood urea levels. The effect for the management of central diabetes insipidus is due to the replacement by the preparation of the endogenous antidiuretic hormone that is insufficiently secreted in this condition.
- Generic Glucophage (Metformin) made by Cipla drops the level of glucose, the content of glycosylated hemoglobin, and raises the tolerability of glucose. It is a first-line medication because it doesn’t promote the secretion of insulin but decreases both intestinal sorption of glucose and its production in the liver. Besides, it improves the sensibility of peripheral tissues to insulin, drops the content of triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density cholesterol and contributes to the normalization of weight. The medication used both as a single-drug therapy and in combination with other medications.
- Generic Glucotrol (Glipizide) is a hypoglycemic medication from the class of sulfonylurea. The blood sugar dropping action of the tablets is due to the inducing of the release of insulin from the active cells of the pancreatic gland. It is used both as a monotherapy and as a part of combination therapy.
- Generic Januvia (Sitagliptin) made by MSD Be well is used for mono- and combined therapy of diabetes type II. It normalizes the blood glucose content via the induction of insulin creation and depression of glucose creation in the liver. The medication is a selective inhibitor of adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 that acts differently than other antidiabetic medications – it raises the level of incretin hormones that play an important role in glucose homeostasis control.
- Generic Prandin (Repaglinide) made by Novo Nordisk Pharma lowers the high level of sugar in the blood through the raised creation of insulin in pancreatic gland. The medication can be used as a single-medicine or a part of combination therapy.
- Generic Precose (Acarbose) at our online pharmacy is presented by two pharmaceutical companies - Glenmark Pharmaceuticals and Bayer Pharmaceuticals. The medication is used for combination therapy of diabetes I, treatment of diabetes type II, and prophylaxis of diabetes type II in lowered glucose tolerance. It normalizes the creation and absorption of glucose and promotes even glucose level during the day without spikes and sharp drops.
- Generic Starlix (Nateglinide) is used both in a mono- and combination therapy of diabetes type II. It promotes the creation of insulin by the pancreatic gland and diminishes the blood sugar level after meal when taken before food. The active substance of the medication is an amino-acid derivative that opens the calcium channels, causing calcium influx and increased insulin production.
Please note that before you buy antidiabetic drug you need to consult a specialist who knows your health history. Besides, the medial products for diabetes type II are usually prescribed after a patient followed a special diet and exercised as appointed by the doctor for at least six months but the desired blood sugar dropping effect was not achieved.